0

Emergency Contraception

by Maxine
Posted August 19 2010 01:08pm
Filed under:

It can take awhile for you and your partner to reconnect physically after the birth of your baby. When you do, it can be a wonderful and passionate experience, but often couples who are just getting past a pregnancy may forget to use any method of birth control when the moment finally arrives. If you’re not ready to have another baby so soon, what can you do?

“Don’t panic,” advises Karon Foster, a Registered Nurse and Parenting Expert. “There are emergency post-sex contraception options available if you’ve had unprotected sex.”

The emergency contraceptive pill (ECP), or morning-after pill, contains hormones that, if taken before ovulation has occurred, will prevent a fertilized egg from developing. They also may affect the lining of the uterus and prevent a fertilized egg from attaching. There are two types of pills available: the single dose pill and the 2-dose pill.

Another option is to have an IUD (Intrauterine Device) inserted into the uterus. The IUD prevents a fertilized egg from implanting into the lining of the uterus.

If you decide to use emergency contraception you will have 48-72 hours after unprotected sex to use an ECP, depending on the type of pill used. The sooner they are started the more effective they are.

An IUD needs to be inserted within 7 days of unprotected sex.

In Canada ECPs don’t require a prescription from a doctor. Emergency IUD’s require an appointment with a doctor or nurse practitioner in order for them to be inserted. In other countries, moms may need to see a health care provider, such as a doctor or nurse practitioner, in order to get a prescription.

In Ontario, ECPs are available from your pharmacy, from a family planning or sexual health clinic, or from your physician. IUDs are available from your doctor and from family planning and sexual health clinics.

As with any medication, you may experience some side effects from ECPs, including nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, dizziness, abdominal pain and headaches. It may also affect the timing of your next menstrual period—it may come a few days earlier or later.

The emergency IUD comes with its own set of side effects. They include:

  • IUD can be expelled.
  • May cause heavier menstrual periods and cramping.
  • Low risk of perforation of the uterine wall. Perforation is a rare event and may happen at the time of insertion. There is less risk if the health care provider is experienced in inserting IUDs.
  • Over time the IUD can become imbedded into the lining of the uterus. This can be painful and may require surgery to remove it.
  • Women who develop a sexually transmitted disease while they are using an IUD may be at greater risk of having problems getting pregnant in the future.

Emergency IUDs are not recommended if a woman has experienced any of the following:

  • Current or recent repeated pelvic infections
  • A recent abnormal PAP test
  • Severe infections of the cervix
  • Unexplained vaginal bleeding
  • Genital cancer
  • Diabetes
  • HIV AIDS
  • Paralysis
  • Allergies to Copper
  • Anemia or history of severe menstrual cramping
  • Wilson’s disease

For more information on emergency contraception options, contact your health care provider or your local health unit.

0 comment(s)
Login or register to post comments
0

Birth Control - Spermicides

by Maxine
Posted August 19 2010 02:02pm
Filed under:

These chemicals act by either killing or disabling the sperm so they cannot fertilize an egg.  The chemical nonoxynol-9 is found in most spermicides. Spermicides are available in different forms such as foam, jelly, cream, suppositories, contraceptive sponges (contraceptive sponges are made of foam and contain spermicide), and vaginal contraceptive film (vaginal contraceptive films are paper-thin squares that dissolve with the heat from the body and cover the cervix).

Effectiveness:
When used consistently and as directed with each episode of intercourse, the effectiveness is 70-95%. Effectiveness can be improved by combining spermicide with condoms or a diaphragm.

Benefits:

  • Easily available and does not require a prescription.
  • Mom and Dad can easily use this method post birth.
  • Does not affect Mom's menstrual cycle or fertility.
  • May protect against some vaginal infections as they kill germs.
  • Provide some lubrication which is helpful after Mom has had a baby or is breastfeeding when the vaginal tissues are drier.

Limitations:

  • Must be inserted into Mom's vagina 30 minutes before intercourse.
  • May interrupt spontaneity of sex.
  • May be messy.
  • Moms should avoid douching for at least 6 hours after spermicide use.
  • Some Moms or Dads may experience sensitivity or allergic reactions to the spermicide.
  • Some Moms may find that the spermicide irritates their vulva or vagina post delivery.
  • May increase the risk of urinary tract infections.
  • May make oral sex less pleasant due to the taste of the spermicide.
  • Non-oxynol 9 spermicides can increase the risk of HIV when used frequently by women who are at high risk of infection.
  • Non-oxynol 9 does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
     

 There are other methods of birth control. Learn More >>

0 comment(s)
Login or register to post comments
0

Birth Control - Intra-Uterine Devices (IUD)

by Maxine
Posted August 19 2010 02:08pm
Filed under:

These are small plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus and may or may not contain copper or a hormone. They work by creating a foreign body reaction in the lining of the uterus which prevents the fertilized egg from implanting. IUDs that contain hormones also cause changes in the thickness of the fluid in the cervix which hinders the sperm's ability to enter the uterus.
 
Effectiveness:
IUDs are considered to be 99% effective.

Benefits:

  • Moms can have them left in for 5-10 years depending on the type that is used.
  • Do not interfere with milk supply, as estrogen can, if Mom is breastfeeding.
  • Does not interrupt sex as it is already inserted.

Limitations:

  • Does not protect Mom against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Can contribute to infections of the genital tract.
  • Requires insertion and placement by Mom's health care provider.
  • Mom needs to check if she can feel the strings of the IUD which protrude into the vagina. Some Moms feel uncomfortable inserting their fingers into the vagina and may not be comfortable with this method of birth control.
  • IUD can be expelled spontaneously.
  • May cause heavier menstrual periods and cramping.
  • Low risk of perforation of the uterine wall. Perforation is a rare event and may happen at any time. There is less risk if the health care provider is experienced in inserting IUDs.
  • Over time the IUD can become imbedded into the lining of the uterus. This can be painful and may require that the IUD be surgically removed.
  • Moms who develop a sexually transmitted disease while they are using an IUD may be at greater risk of having problems getting pregnant in the future.


Not Recommended:

IUDs are not recommended if Mom has experienced any of the following:

  • Current or recent repeated pelvic infections
  • A recent abnormal PAP test
  • Known or suspected pregnancy
  • Severe infections of the cervix
  • Unexplained vaginal bleeding
  • Cancer in the genital tract
  • Diabetes
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Paralysis
  • Allergies to Copper or other materials used in the IUD
  • Anemia or history of severe menstrual cramping
  • Wilson's disease
  • Sensitivities to the hormones contained in the IUD
     

 There are other methods of birth control. Learn More >>

0 comment(s)
Login or register to post comments
0

Birth Control - Hormonal Methods

by Maxine
Posted August 19 2010 02:33pm
Filed under:

These methods include synthetic forms of estrogen and or progesterone to prevent ovulation and prevent pregnancy.

The hormones also cause the fluid in the cervix to thicken which hinders the sperm’s ability to enter the uterus. The hormones are available as: pills; a patch; a vaginal ring; an injection or an implant.

The Pill

Effectiveness
The Pill contains the hormones estrogen & progesterone. If used consistently, with no missed pills, the pill is considered 90 to 99% effective.

Benefits

  • Easy to use.
  • Mom’s periods may be lighter, more regular and less painful.
  • May relieve premenstrual tension (PMS).
  • May protect against cancers of the uterus and ovaries.
  • May reduce acne.
  • May decrease ovarian cysts and fibrocystic breast changes.
  • Can be used for emergency contraceptive.
  • Does not interfere with sexual spontaneity.

Limitations

  • Requires a prescription and check up by Mom’s health care provider.
  • If Mom is breastfeeding, these pills may decrease Mom’s milk supply.
  • Does not protect Mom against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Must be taken every day and at the same time of day, which may be difficult for some Moms to remember.
  • May interact with other medications. Mom should first tell her health care provider about any other medications she is taking.
  • Increases the risk of heart attacks and stroke if Mom smokes.
  • Moms who are not breastfeeding should wait until after 4 weeks postpartum to begin using the pill to decrease the risk of clots.
  • May cause the following side effects: irregular bleeding or spotting; nausea; breast tenderness; weight gain or water retention; mild headaches; skin discolouration; mood changes including depression or decreased sex drive.

Not Recommended
Mothers who have the following conditions may be advised not to take the pill:

  • History of heart attacks and stroke
  • Blood clots
  • Unexplained vaginal bleeding
  • Cancer of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, breast or vagina
  • Suspected pregnancy
  • Liver disease or gallbladder disease
  • Migraines
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Epilepsy
  • Sickle cell disease

 

Mini Pill

Effectiveness
Minipills contain progestin only. These pills have effectiveness ratings of 95-98% and are considered 100% effective for breastfeeding moms. Moms should wait until 6 weeks post delivery before starting this pill.

Benefits

  • Do not contain any estrogen so can be used by Moms who can't use combined pills
  • Easy to use.
  • Mom's menstrual periods are lighter, less painful and less frequent.
  • May relieve premenstrual tension (PMS).
  • May protect against cancers of the uterus and ovaries.
  • May reduce acne.
  • May decrease ovarian cysts and fibrocystic breast changes.
  • Does not interfere with sexual spontaneity.
  • Can be used in Moms who wish to breast feed as it will not decrease the amount of breast milk.

Limitations

  • Requires a prescription and check up by Mom's health care provider.
  • Does not protect Mom against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Must be taken every day and at the same time of day which may be difficult for some Moms to remember.
  • May interact with other medications. Mom should first tell her health care provider about any other medications she is taking.
  • Increases the risk of heart attacks and stroke if Mom smokes.
  • May cause the following side effects: irregular bleeding or spotting; mild headaches; mood changes including depression or decreased sex drive.

Not Recommended
Mothers who have the following conditions may be advised not to take the mini pill:

  • Unexplained vaginal bleeding
  • Cancer of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, breast or vagina
  • Suspected pregnancy

 

Contraceptive Patch

Effectiveness
The Contraceptive patch contains estrogen and progesterone. With consistent use the patch is 95 to 99% effective in women who weigh less than 198 lbs. It is slightly less reliable in women over 198 lbs.

Benefits 

  • Easier to use than the Pill as it only requires once a week application.
  • Mom's periods may be lighter, more regular and less painful.
  • May relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • May protect against cancers of the uterus and ovaries.
  • May reduce acne.
  • May decrease ovarian cysts and fibrocystic breast changes.
  • Does not interfere with sexual spontaneity.

Limitations

  • Requires a prescription and check up by Mom's health care provider.
  • If Mom is breastfeeding, this may affect Mom's milk supply.
  • Does not protect Mom against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • A new patch must be applied once a week which may be difficult for some Moms to remember.
  • May interact with other medications. Mom should first tell her health care provider about any other medications she is taking.
  • Increases the risk of heart attacks and stroke if Mom smokes.
  • May cause the following side effects: irregular bleeding or spotting; nausea; breast tenderness; weight gain or loss; mood changes including depression or decreased sex drive; skin reaction at the site where the patch is applied ; change in vision or inability to wear contact lenses for Moms who wear contacts.

Not Recommended
Mothers who have the following conditions may be advised not to take the contraceptive patch:

  • History of heart attacks and stroke
  • Blood clots
  • Unexplained vaginal bleeding
  • Cancer of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, breast or vagina
  • Suspected pregnancy
  • Liver disease or gallbladder disease
  • Migraines
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Epilepsy
  • Sickle Cell Anemia

 

Vaginal Rings

Effectiveness
Vaginal ring contains estrogen and progesterone. It is 99% effective if used consistently and correctly.

Benefits

  • Easier to use than the Pill or patch as it only requires insertion once per month.
  • More private than a pill dispenser or visible contraceptive patch.
  • Mom's periods may be lighter, more regular and less painful.
  • May relieve symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • May protect against cancers of the uterus and ovaries.
  • May reduce acne.
  • May decrease ovarian cysts and fibrocystic breast changes.
  • Does not interfere with sexual spontaneity.

Limitations

  • Requires a prescription and check up by Mom's health care provider.
  • If Mom is breastfeeding, this may affect Mom's milk supply.
  • Does not protect Mom against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • May interact with other medications. Mom should first tell her health care provider about any other medications she is taking.
  • Increases the risk of heart attacks and stroke if Mom smokes.
  • May cause the following side effects: irregular bleeding or spotting; nausea; breast tenderness; weight gain; headache; vaginal discharge; vaginal irritation; mood changes including depression or decreased sex drive.

Not Recommended
Mothers who have the following conditions may be advised not to use the vaginal ring:

  • History of heart attacks and stroke
  • Blood clots
  • Unexplained vaginal bleeding
  • Cancer of the uterus, ovaries, cervix, breast or vagina
  • Suspected pregnancy
  • Liver disease or gallbladder disease
  • Migraines
  • Diabetes
  • Hypertension
  • Epilepsy
  • Dropped uterus
  • Dropped bladder
  • Rectal prolapse
  • Severe constipation
  • Easily irritated vagina
  • Sickle cell disease

 

Injectable Contraceptives

Effectiveness
Injectable contraceptives contain progesterone only. They are almost 98 to 100% effective.

Benefits

  • Convenient: only requires one injection every three months.
  • Does not require regular supplies.
  • Effective within 24 hours of the injection.
  • Does not contain estrogen, so Moms do not have estrogen related side effects.
  • May decrease risk of uterine cancer and pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • Does not interfere with sexual spontaneity.
  • Mom can start injections 6 wks after giving birth.
  • Mom may have less menstrual cramping and fewer menstrual periods.

Limitations

  • Requires an injection by Mom's health care provider every three months.
  • If Mom is breastfeeding, this may affect Mom's milk supply.
  • Does not protect Mom against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Delays the return of Mom's fertility.
  • May interact with other medications. Mom should first tell her health care provider about any other medications she is taking.
  • Mom's will need to wait until at least 6 wks post delivery to begin this method due to concerns about the effect of progestin on baby's brain, lymphatic and genitalia development.
  • Causes the loss of bone density; Moms should exercise regularly and eat calcium rich foods to help decrease this loss of bone density.
  • May cause the following side effects: spotting; heavy bleeding or no monthly bleeding; weight gain from 5-10 lbs after one year of use; headache; breast tenderness; acne; hair loss; backache; bloating; mood changes including depression or decreased sex drive.
  • Side effects may last for a long time. It may take over 6 months for the drug to leave a Mom's body.
  • Slight risk of preterm baby if Mom becomes pregnant while taking Depo-provera.

Not Recommended
Mothers who have the following conditions may be advised not to use injectable contraceptives:

  • Unexplained vaginal bleeding
  • Suspected pregnancy
  • Liver disease or gallbladder disease

 

Implants

Effectiveness
Implants contain only progestin. They are considered 99% effective.

Benefits 

  • Very effective.
  • Provide contraceptive protection for 3-5 yrs depending on type used.
  • Mom's fertility returns within 3 months from when the implant is removed.
  • Mom can use the implant if she is breastfeeding, although she should wait 6 weeks post delivery to have it inserted.
  • Can be removed if Mom changes her mind.
  • Does not interrupt sexual spontaneity.
  • May decrease Mom's risk of uterine cancer, ovarian cancer and pelvic inflammatory disease, and anemia.

Limitations 

  • Requires insertion by a trained health care provider.
  • Does not protect Mom against sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Delays the return of Mom's fertility.
  • May interact with other medications. Mom should first tell her health care provider about any other medications she is taking.
  • May cause slight increase in ovarian cysts.
  • Can be difficult to remove and requires a trained health care provider.
  • Although rare, may cause an infection in the site they are inserted usually the arm.
  • May cause the following side effects: irregular bleeding or continuous spotting; weight gain; headache; acne; abdominal pain; painful periods; hair loss; mood changes including depression or decreased sex drive.
  • Side effects may last for a long time.
  • If Mom becomes pregnant while using implants she may have an increased risk of a tubal pregnancy. A tubal pregnancy occurs when the fertilized egg implants in a fallopian tube instead of the uterus.

Not Recommended   
Mothers who have the following conditions may be advised not to use implant contraceptives:

  • Heart problems
  • Intolerance to irregular bleeding
  • Allergies to Progestin
  • Depression
  • Known or suspected breast, cervical or endocmetrial cancers

 

 There are other methods of birth control. Learn More >>

0 comment(s)
Login or register to post comments
Learn More!
view counter

MOST POPULAR STORIES

You can use a variety of Comfort, Play & Teach strategies that are tailored to different temperament traits.
Read More »
What comes to mind when you hear the phrase Positive Parenting? Positive Parenting is the approach to parenting that we believe best supports all aspects of healthy child development.
Read More »
Although your mirror cannot reflect words and ideas, there are mirror-like skills you can use to accomplish the same task—Reflective Parenting.
Read More »

parents2parents
syndicated content powered by FeedBurner

 

FeedBurner makes it easy to receive content updates in My Yahoo!, Newsgator, Bloglines, and other news readers.
Learn more about syndication and Feedburner »

http://feeds.feedburner.com/parents2parents